The Outcome of the Norman Conquest on Anglo-Saxon Garden Design

kay-72220__97925.jpg The introduction of the Normans in the 2nd half of the eleventh century irreparably transformed The Anglo-Saxon lifestyle. The skill of the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons' in architecture and agriculture at the time of the conquest. But before centering on home-life or having the occasion to contemplate domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire population. Castles were more standard designs and often built on blustery hills, where their people spent both time and space to practicing offense and defense, while monasteries were large stone buildings, commonly located in the widest, most fruitful hollows. The sterile fortresses did not provide for the peaceful avocation of farming. The early Anglo-Norman style of architecture is depicted in Berkeley Castle, which is perhaps the most untouched example we have. The keep is said to date from the time of William the Conqueror. As a strategy of deterring attackers from tunneling within the walls, an immense terrace encircles the building. On one of these parapets is a scenic bowling green covered in grass and enclosed by an aged hedge of yew that has been shaped into coarse battlements.

Overview of Hydrostatics

From its housing vessel to other components it comes in contact with, liquid in equilibrium applies force on everything it meets. These fall into 2 groups, hydrostatic load or outside force.

The force applied by the liquid against a level wall is identical at each point where it makes contact with the wall. When an object is completely immersed in a liquid, vertical force is applied to the object at each and every point. These vertical forces are buoyancy, and the concept itself is more fully defined by Archimedes’principle. Liquid acted on by hydrostatic force is then subject to hydrostatic pressure at the point of contact. These concepts are applied to the containers used by plumbing, wells, and fountains.

Modern Garden Decor: Fountains and their Beginnings

The incredible construction of a fountain allows it to provide clean water or shoot water high into air for dramatic effect and it can also serve as an excellent design feature to enhance your home.

Pure practicality was the original purpose of fountains. Water fountains were connected to a spring or aqueduct to provide drinkable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages.

Up until the nineteenth, fountains had to be higher and closer to a water supply, such as aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to benefit from gravity which fed the fountains. Artists thought of fountains as wonderful additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to provide clean water and honor the designer responsible for building it. Animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks were often times utilized by Romans to decorate their fountains. To depict the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages added fountains to their designs. The fountains seen in the Gardens of Versailles were supposed to show the power over nature held by King Louis XIV of France. The Romans of the 17th and 18th centuries manufactured baroque decorative fountains to exalt the Popes who commissioned them as well as to mark the spot where the restored Roman aqueducts entered the city.

Urban fountains made at the end of the nineteenth functioned only as decorative and celebratory adornments since indoor plumbing provided the necessary drinking water. The creation of special water effects and the recycling of water were two things made possible by swapping gravity with mechanical pumps.

Embellishing city parks, honoring people or events and entertaining, are some of the purposes of modern-day fountains.

Fountains As Water Elements

The motion of water flowing in or through a large feature is what identifies of a water feature.

There is a wide array of such features going from something as simple as a suspended wall fountain or as complex as a courtyard tiered fountain. Known for their adaptability, they can be utilized either inside or outdoors. Ponds and pools are also included in the description of a water feature.

Living areas including extensive yards, yoga studios, comfortable verandas, apartment balconies, or office settings are great areas to add a water feature such as a garden wall fountain. In addition to helping you unwind, both sight and sound are enticed by the comforting sounds of a water fountain. The most important consideration is the aesthetically eye-catching form they have which accentuates the interior design of any room. The sound of water provides serenity, covers up undesirable noises and also produces an entertaining water show.

The Outdoor Water Features

The water from springs and other sources was originally delivered to the occupants of nearby towns and municipalities by way of water fountains, whose design was largely practical, not aesthetic. In the years before electricity, the spray of fountains was driven by gravity alone, often using an aqueduct or water resource located far away in the nearby mountains. The elegance and wonder of fountains make them ideal for historical memorials. The contemporary fountains of today bear little similarity to the first water fountains. The first known water fountain was a stone basin created that served as a receptacle for drinking water and ceremonial functions. Stone basins as fountains have been found from 2,000 BC. The earliest civilizations that made use of fountains relied on gravity to force water through spigots. These historic fountains were built to be functional, frequently situated along reservoirs, streams and rivers to supply drinking water. The Romans began constructing ornate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were metallic or natural stone masks of animals and mythological representations.

A well-designed system of reservoirs and aqueducts kept Rome's public water fountains supplied with fresh water.


The Dispersion of Water Fountain Design Knowledge
Instrumental to the advancement of scientific technology were the published papers and illustrated publications of the day. They were also the principal means of transmitting useful hydraulic facts and fountain... read more